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A short history of the Jewish peoples in the modern world
- Light for Nations: A Short History of the Jewish people the Modern World
by VNN Staff
revised December 2005
The Jews refer to themselves as a light unto nations - a people that improves all countries in which it resides. But do the Jews really improve the states in which they dwell or is the claim merely public relations? We hope that the reader may decide for himself using this document, which is a short history of the Jewish people.
The text below shows that Jews may well have influenced Western culture more than any other ethnic group, particularly over the last few hundred years. It is important to note that our writers allege no 'conspiracy' by Jews. Rather, the examples cited point to an inborn tendency of Jews to engage in behavior they believe will ensure their group's safety, no matter its effect on the gentiles they live among.
To be sure, the Jews -- a race and also a religion -- have a long history. But we will focus here on the past 200 years. We begin their saga with the rise of the Rothschild banking family in Europe.
The Rise of the Rothschilds and International Banking
Of significance in Jewish history is how important the Rothschilds -- and other Jewish bankers -- were to the solidification of Jewish power in the West. A large percentage of banks in the West was originally founded by Jews, e.g. the Rothschilds, Jacob Schiff, and Paul and Max Warburg. In fact, Meyer Amschel Rothschild and his sons virtually invented modernized banking and finance. Not only did the powerful Rothschilds control banking in Europe from approximately 1815 onward, but they also purchased European news outlets -- including the Reuters news agency -- giving them the power to influence the opinions of millions of gentiles. Furthermore, political and social-reform actions naturally require money; since they were far wealthier than even royal families -- who were in fact indebted to them -- the Rothschilds were in a unique position to be able to transform aspects of European society to benefit the Jewish community.
Two features remain key to the power of the international bankers. First, many bankers are related by marriage. By the end of the 1800s many Rothschild cousins had married. Second, many top politicians in the West have been indebted to the international bankers for providing them with loans at critical times, such as when a Rothschild loaned fellow Jew and Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli millions of pounds so he could buy shares of stock for control of the Suez Canal area to benefit England.
Perhaps nowhere have Jewish international bankers had a bigger impact than in funding wars. For example, they funded the Japanese in the Japan/Russia war of the early 20th century, which has been described as the first war in which non-Whites defeated White men. Many Western political observers assert that wars are waged for economic reasons, and if that is true, then Jews, by their domination of international banking, have been vital but unseen players in modern warfare.
The Founding of Communism
The ideology that would murder and enslave more people than any other idea in human history was crafted in the 1840s by a German Jew named Karl Marx. Like many Jews who wanted to hide within gentile society, Marx's family converted to Christianity. Marx's ideology was called communism, a social and economic system in which the government controlled all forms of property and wealth. Marx based his communism on the historic kahal, a Jewish communal living system. The kahal was essentially an early form of communism, with community needs such as food, living arrangements, and vocations allocated in a collective manner.
Furthermore, the Soviet Union - which spread communism across the earth - would likely have never been created if the part-Jewish leftist V. I. Lenin (see elsewhere) had not been heavily influenced by Marx's book Das Kapital. In fact, Das Kapital can be credited as having transformed the young Lenin into a full-blown revolutionary - another Jewish root of communism.
It should be noted by the reader that communism is, as an ideology, more severe than Nazism, its sworn enemy. As an example, in Nazi Germany a citizen could own a gun with a permit. But no citizen could, or can, own a gun in any communist country. Nazism wasn't totalitarian. It was politically authoritarian. But communism is totalitarian in that every aspect of a citizen's life is rigidly controlled. The number of people murdered by communism worldwide since 1917 approaches 100 million people - 20 million in Russia alone, by conservative estimate. That number does not include the other millions of people who were imprisoned, tortured or forced to flee their homes due to communist aggression in Eastern Europe.
The Rise of Zionism
In the late 1880s, Jews began looking for a permanent place to evade gentiles irritated by their behavior. The place they envisioned for their exile was Palestine, portions of which Jews claimed they had occupied over 2,000 years ago. Jews began a global campaign to convince the world that they were entitled to 'return' to Palestine. The leader of this so-called Zionist movement was Theodor Herzl. Zionism provided the motive for a number of Jewish actions over the course of the twentieth century, including the manipulations leading up to the Balfour Declaration (covered below) and the exaggeration of the severity of the so-called Holocaust. The state of Israel was brought into being by Jewish terrorism, characterized by such acts as the bombing of the King David Hotel in 1946 and the Deir Yassin massacre in 1948.
To date, Zionism -- which the UN described as a form of racism in its 1975 Resolution 3379 -- has caused much trouble in the world, through continual violence in the so-called Middle East involving Israel. American (read: gentile) tax dollars fund the state of Israel to the tune of billions a year, which is one of the chief causes of Arab anger towards the U.S.
The Creation of the Federal Reserve Corporation
In 1913, the U.S. Congress authorized the creation of the Federal Reserve banking system, which is also known as the Federal Reserve Corporation. This private, non-governmental entity issues America's money. The Federal Reserve pays the U.S. Treasury a small fee to print 'Federal Reserve Note' currency, which is later loaned to the U.S. government.
The Federal Reserve system was created largely by the actions of Jewish banker Paul M. Warburg.
There are several problems with the U.S. government not controlling America's money. Fed money is debt money, and also fiat money: cash that is not backed by 'real' commodities such as gold or silver. It is debt money because when the U.S. government needs money -- i.e., more money than the U.S. treasury receives from taxes -- it borrows the cash from the Federal Reserve (such borrowing is now routine). The government then agrees to pay back the money that it borrowed from the corporation with added interest paid on the collateral for the loan (the collateral being interest-bearing government bonds). That interest -- minus smaller government debts such as foreign aid -- is the national, or federal, debt, or, what America owes the Federal Reserve Corporation.
The Federal Reserve also controls interest rates and the amount of money that circulates within America, giving it enormous power over the U.S. economy.
As the debt money system continues to be used, America's national debt climbs, leading to the American citizen being progressively over-taxed through the silent theft of inflation.
Of significance is that the leadership of the Federal Reserve and the key owners of the corporation's stock -- i.e., banks -- have been disproportionately Jewish. Even today, a Jew named Alan Greenspan heads that corporation. (How ironic that the same year that America gave up control of its money to private bankers, Canada did as well under the Bank Act of 1913. In fact, private banks control the money of almost all Western countries, and yes, those banks are very often owned or controlled by Jews).
Fact: America became involved in WWI due to Jewish intervention. England was in danger of losing the war when Jews secretly approached the British government with an unusual offer: the Jews, using their powerful influence within American President Woodrow Wilson's inner circle, would persuade Wilson to enter America into the war if the British government would declare its support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. As a result of that offer, Wilson's close Jewish advisors, such as Louis Brandeis, Bernard Baruch and Rabbi Stephen Wise, urged Wilson to aid the British war effort by committing American troops to enter WWI. Another Jew, Chaim Weizmann, was the key player on the British side of the plan to inject America into WWI. That the vast majority of the American people wanted nothing to do with the European war, and that Wilson had campaigned on the specific promise to keep America out of the war, turned out not to matter. The will of the people was abandoned for the will of the Jews.
The British government pledged its support for the creation of a Jewish state in a document that became known as the Balfour Declaration. That declaration was issued after America had entered WWI. The Balfour Declaration was written by one Jew, Leopold Amery, and edited by another Jew, Louis Brandeis, who was the first Jewish justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. The reader should be aware of the fact that WWI led directly to WWII. In fact, many people feel that WWII was merely a continuation of WWI.
'Russian' Revolution/Comintern Founded
Probably the most important event in recent history, aside from WWII, was the so-called 'Russian' Revolution, which occurred in late 1917. In that revolution, communists gained control of Russia, murdering and enslaving millions of its citizens, most of whom were gentiles. Nearly all of the top communists in Russia -- first called 'Bolsheviks' but later 'Soviets' -- were Jewish and not from Russian stock. Their leader, V.I. Lenin, was, as we mentioned previously, part-Jewish. After Lenin's death, Joseph Stalin led the Soviet communists. Stalin was not Jewish but he was married to a Jew (in his third, common-law marriage). The Russian Revolution was financed by the Jewish banker Jacob Schiff, who furnished the communists with millions of dollars.
After gaining control of Russia, the Soviets spread communism worldwide through an organ of the Soviet government called the Comintern. The Comintern sent agents around the globe to foment revolutions which, it hoped, eventually would result in the installation of communist regimes in every nation. The Comintern was run by a Jew named Grigory Zinoviev. Because of the Comintern's actions many countries around the world were later enslaved under communist dictatorships, e.g. North Korea and Cuba. China was also communized by Jewish/Soviet emissaries, e.g. Adolf Abramovitch Joffe (aka Yoffe) and Mikhail Markovich Borodin.
It should be recognized that the mass murder that occurred in Russia from 1917 onward was carried out almost exclusively by Jews, including Lazar Kaganovich, Leon Trotsky, Yakov Sverdlov, Yakov Yurovsky and Genrikh Yagoda. The few top Soviet officials who were not Jewish were married to Jews, for example Rykov, Molotov, Dzherzhinsky and Bukharin (not counting the previously-mentioned Stalin). Soviet communism had racially-Jewish roots until Stalin became frustrated with their domination of the government and purged a significant number of Jews including Kamenev, Zinoviev, Radek, and Yagoda.
Of interest regarding the 'Russian' Revolution is that British leader Winston Churchill wrote a newspaper article in 1920 titled "Zionism versus Bolshevism: A Struggle for the Soul of the Jewish People," in which he echoed the coming Nazis in pointing out that that the 'Russian' revolution was led mostly by Jews. Churchill's never-mentioned article is available on the web.
The Creation of the Versailles Treaty
Critically important to modern history was the Versailles Treaty of 1919, which carved Germany into pieces as the conclusion of WWI. European states wanted to punish Germany for her role in the war, and the way they did so was through that treaty. (It should be recognized that WWI was not started by Germany, as is often claimed, but by Austria-Hungary, which declared war upon Serbia in July 1914). Under the questionable Versailles Treaty, parts of Germany were given to various European countries including France, Poland, Denmark and Belgium.
Most important about the Versailles Treaty, however, was the fact that Jews were key advisors to most if not all of the top government officials who attended the peace conference that produced it. The Jew Bernard Baruch advised U.S. President Wilson at the conference, while British Prime Minister Lloyd George was advised by the Jew Phil Sassoon. And French leader Georges Clemenceau was advised by his Jewish Interior Minister Georges Mandel aka Louis Rothschild. Furthermore, Jewish leader Rabbi Stephen Wise advised U.S. president Wilson about matters surrounding the impending treaty before Wilson left America to attend the peace conference. The Versailles Treaty caused WWII to occur by default, culminating in Hitler attempting to unravel the Versailles Treaty by invading Poland in 1939. The treaty was unjust and several Western leaders admitted that it was, including British Prime Minister A. Neville Chamberlain.
The Impact of Jewish Marxists/Socialists in pre-Hitler Germany
From just after WWI until the early 1930s Germany was in severe turmoil. Among the worst of her troubles were communist revolutionaries starting riots in German cities lasting as long as five days. The riots were intended to destabilize Germany as a first step towards communization of the country. Also among Germany's troubles was incredible monetary inflation.
Most of Germany's troublemaking revolutionaries were Jewish. Karl Radek, Kurt Eisner, and Rosa Luxemburg, for example. In fact, those three people attempted coups in several European locations.
Furthermore, pre-Hitler -- aka Weimar -- Germany was run by a government containing many Jews, such as Foreign Minister Walter Rathenau. The Weimar constitution was even written by a Jew, Hugo Preuss. Jews drove the leftist and Marxist movements in Germany, which influenced, for example, such matters as art and architecture and even sexual behavior. Weimar Germany's media were also largely in Jewish hands, as were her financial institutions -- not surprising since Jews tend to dominate these vocations in most Western countries.
Hitler Comes to Power, and the Frankfurt School Leaves for America
When Adolf Hitler assumed power in Germany in 1933, he set about correcting the problems Germany faced. Among his actions were imprisoning Jewish revolutionaries and strengthening the German economy by the ingenious use of 'Mefo' bonds, which in a short time transformed Germany's economy into the most powerful in Europe. Indeed, Germany achieved full employment in four years under Hitler's rule. (It is important to contrast Hitler's quick and successful transformation of Germany's economy to American president F. D. Roosevelt's failed attempts to rescue America's economy from a severe depression. FDR's economic programs were largely 'artificial' in that the government, not private business, created jobs via large projects funded by U.S. tax dollars. In other words, tax dollars were used to pay taxpayers).
Coinciding with the rise of Nazism, an influential group of Jewish intellectuals fled Germany and came to America. This group, known as the Frankfurt School, injected Marxist ideas into American life via major U.S. universities. The Frankfurt School -- including such Jews as Theodor Adorno, Wilhelm Reich, Erich Fromm and Max Horkheimer -- profoundly changed America's social fabric. Indeed, much of the social turmoil of the 1960s can be traced to the prior influence of these Frankfurt Jews.
The Beginnings of WWII and the Role of FDR's Jewish Cabal
In the early 1930s, certain Jews began to set the stage for WWII. In both Britain and America, Jews in important positions of power maneuvered to get the British and American governments to actively oppose Hitler's Germany. Furthermore, Jews themselves declared financial 'war' on Germany just after Hitler took power. Such a 'war' declaration occurred before Hitler had imprisoned the Jews or curtailed Jewish legal rights. In other words, Jews struck the first blow in their battle against Hitler's new regime.
It is important for the reader to understand that long before Hitler had imprisoned the Jews or invaded any country, American president Franklin D. Roosevelt officially recognized Germany's enemy, the communist Soviet Union (in November 1933), as a hedge against anti-communism in Europe. That the president of a free country would recognize a brutal communist state that had already murdered millions of people -- a fact likely known to Roosevelt -- is significant, and offers insight into Roosevelt's administration. Some of the people surrounding Roosevelt were communists, for example U.S. Treasury official Harry Dexter White. Other Roosevelt staffers were, if not actual communists, then sympathetic towards communism, e.g. FDR's vice-president Henry Wallace. Roosevelt himself told Congressman Martin Dies that "several of the best friends I have got" were communists (noted in the Congressional Record, Sept. 22, 1950, page A6832).
More important, however, President Roosevelt's administration overflowed with Jews - so many that his famous 'New Deal' socioeconomic program was often referred to as the 'Jew Deal.' Indeed, it was a Jew -- FDR staffer Samuel Rosenman -- that coined the term 'New Deal.' The Jews who aided Roosevelt's administration included Bernard Baruch, Felix Frankfurter, David Niles, Louis Brandeis, Henry Morgenthau Jr., Rabbi Stephen Wise and Sidney Hillman.
The Jews in Roosevelt's inner circle persuaded him to treat both Germany and Japan as dangerous enemies of America, which Roosevelt did. Concerning Britain, powerful Jews such as Bernard Baruch worked to push top officials in the same direction. (Of note regarding England vis-a-vis Germany is that when Winston Churchill was in severe debt due to gambling losses, he became indebted to Baruch since Baruch helped rescue him from bankruptcy; the world will likely never know to what lengths Churchill was willing to go to return Baruch's favor. Furthermore, Churchill deeply disliked Germany, and possibly envied Hitler's success).
When President Roosevelt suggested in a speech in 1937 that America might have to wage war in the near future, watchful Americans knew that war with the future Axis powers -- Germany, Japan and Italy -- was imminent. Such an early suggestion of war, years before WWII began, gave good insight into Roosevelt's intentions.
Roosevelt knew that war with Japan would provide a back door through which America could enter WWII. That entry would allow America to help defeat Hitler for the benefit of both world Jewry and England. FDR knew that if he punished Japan - an ally of Germany - past a certain point, the Japanese would attack America in retaliation. In fact, as historian Harry Elmer Barnes pointed out in his 1953 book "Perpetual War For Perpetual Peace," FDR began to antagonize Japan soon after becoming president in 1933. In the end, FDR and world Jewry got exactly what they wanted: the defeat of Nazi Germany, the biggest threat to ever face world Jewry and international leftism. It must be clearly understood: WWII was all about Germany and the Jews. Japan was but a secondary issue, despite outward appearances to the contrary.
Before WWII began, Jew-dominated Hollywood played a crucial role in persuading American citizens that Hitler and the Germans were dangerous to America's safety. For example, Hollywood produced movies that portrayed the Germans as wanting to take over either America or the entire world. One such film was "Confessions of a Nazi Spy," starring Jewish actor Edward G. Robinson.
Jews were also key players in silencing people who opposed the growing anti-Germany movement in America. Prominent citizens who questioned the dangerousness of Germany to America were labeled "isolationists" and fiercely criticized. Those isolationists, such as famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, were unofficially blacklisted in America, their voices silenced by a concerted campaign funded largely by Jewish money. Jews funneled money into many anti-Germany organizations, such as the Fight For Freedom Committee, which received some winking support from Roosevelt's administration.
Also of note concerning the beginnings of WWII was Hitler's unique economy. Among other features, the German economy had a barter system that cut out the international Jewish bankers. For example, Germany traded trucks to Argentina in exchange for grain. Instead of both Germany and Argentina approaching international bankers for loans at high interest rates, both countries simply bypassed the lenders via barter. Such exchanges angered the Jew-dominated global financiers. As a result, economic warfare was directed against Germany by Jew-led factions fearful that other nations might copy her example.
The event that officially started WWII, Hitler's invasion of Poland, can be explained by the fact that Hitler was attempting to reverse the unfairness of the Versailles Treaty and reclaim traditionally German territory. Hitler asked Poland at least twice to return the city of Danzig and the Polish Corridor to Germany before invading in 1939. Poland refused. Also of significance is that after Hitler invaded Poland, he offered to pull his troops out of that country if he could keep Danzig and the Corridor. Britain and France refused Hitler's offer. (Did they prefer war instead?)
Of further importance concerning WWII is the fact that Hitler probably did not realize how influential Jews were in shaping the policies of the British government in 1939. Hitler likely thought that he was opposing only gentiles in England. What he probably did not realize about Britain was that, like most European governments, Britain was beholden to powerful Jews. Those Jews not only aided the British government financially, they also traveled in the highest social circles, having been named 'barons' and 'lords' long before. The Jews received those lofty titles not for their heritage but instead for their important financial services to the British government. In fact, ever since Oliver Cromwell allowed the Jews to return to England in the 1650s (they had been expelled by King Edward the First, known as "Longshanks," in 1290), Jews had exercised significant influence on political and social events in England.
The popular idea that Britain and France had to guarantee Poland's borders by declaring war on Germany after Germany invaded Poland is wrong. Days after Germany invaded Poland, the Soviets invaded as well, from the opposite side. Britain and France did not then declare war on the Soviet Union. Why did England and France allow the Soviets to invade Poland but not Germany? The 1939 Anglo-Polish treaty which led to WWII, and not the secret protocols of it, did not specify which countries Britain would defend Poland against. Additionally, that treaty -- the Agreement of Mutual Assistance -- was not properly ratified since it did not 'sit' for 21 days under the Ponsonby Rule, as was normally required under British policy. Translation: Britain's guaranteeing of Poland's borders was unlawful.
Most important of all, however, about WWII is that there is now clear evidence that certain powerful men had planned to remove Hitler from power long before he invaded Poland. As outlined in the book Which Way Western Man? by William G. Simpson, both Winston Churchill and various powerful Jews began making plans to topple Hitler as early as 1935, by any means necessary. For example, U.S. General Robert E. Wood told a U.S. Congressional committee that Churchill told him in 1936 that England must "smash" Germany. That such a comment came 3 years before WWII began is of critical historical importance.
The Defeat of Germany and the Creation of the Morgenthau Plan
The defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945 was not simply a military victory for the allies. It amounted to the revenge of world Jewry. The biggest racial threat to the Jews in recent history -- Nazi Germany -- had not merely been defeated in war but had been virtually wiped off the map. Entire cities such as Dresden were burnt to the ground. Millions of innocent German citizens were either killed, injured or left homeless. All traces of the former German culture were destroyed. People having no official role in the Nazi government were executed by the allies, such as Julius Streicher and Alfred Rosenberg. Other former Nazi officials were tried and hanged by the allies at Nuremberg using ex post facto laws, hearsay evidence, and confessions gained under torture administered by interrogators - who were often Jewish. Of significance is the fact that as early as December 1942 the allied powers had decided to prosecute German military personnel for war crimes committed during WWII.
Roosevelt's August 1944 comment that the entire German people -- not simply former Nazis -- should be "castrated" to prevent them from reproducing reveals the Roosevelt administration's attitude towards Germany in general. U.S. General Dwight Eisenhower said that the top German officials should be punished beyond the death penalty, whatever that might have meant. Of possible interest regarding 'Ike's' comment is that Eisenhower's nickname at West Point military academy was 'The Swedish Jew.' Also, no castration suggestions were offered by allied leaders concerning the Japanese people, even though the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor caused America to enter WWII in the first place. Also of importance is the fact that two Jews -- Henry Morgenthau, Jr. and the communist Harry Dexter White -- wrote the U.S. government's Morgenthau Plan, which restructured post-war Germany to Jewish benefit. A greater example of a conflict of interest would be hard to find.
Also regarding the matter of post-war Germany, after the war the director general of the organization in charge of providing food and housing for homeless Germans (the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, or UNRRA) was a Jew, Herbert Lehman. UNRRA's chief advisor was also a Jew, David Weintraub.
Jews also played key roles in the prosecution of German military personnel for war crimes committed during WWII. For example, in the Malmedy massacre trial (U.S. vs. Valentin Bersin, et al.), the chief interrogator of the accused German soldiers was a Jew, William Perl. The chief prosecutor, Burton Ellis, was also a Jew. The chief assistant prosecutor was a Jew as well, Raphael Schumaker.
Jews were also key players in the U.S. Office of War Information (OWI), which created anti-Axis films, posters and photos for propaganda purposes. That propaganda was used to influence the attitudes of Western citizens towards Germany and Japan. Among the Jews who worked for OWI were James Paul Warburg, Bernard M. Baruch, Herbert Marcuse and Leo Rosten. Jews also helped 'de-Nazify' German military personnel and the German public after WWII, and conflicts of interests often occurred when that happened. For example, Jewish Marxist Herbert Marcuse a) advised the allies about how to portray German fascism to the Western public via mass media; and b) wrote a handbook for the allies concerning de-Nazification. The de-Nazification of Germany is so complete today that a German citizen risks a stiff jail sentence if he merely utters a pro-Nazi comment in public.
The Founding of the UN
Not only was the 'architect' of the United Nations, Leo Pasvolsky, Jewish, but among the most important people involved in the founding of the UN in 1945 were Jewish communists, such as Victor Perlo, Harry Dexter White and Solomon Adler. The UN is a global entity of considerable power which has influenced the cultures of many Western countries. For example, in the late 1940s America adopted at least some educational ideas that were created by a UN department called UNESCO (i.e., those found in their Towards World Understanding report). Those ideas concerned the content of textbooks in American schools. President Truman's Commission on Higher Education endorsed the ideas, which included teaching children about the benefits of "international government" (aka 'surrendering much of your country's autonomy to a global body').
The controversial 1951 UN/UNESCO 'Statement on the Nature of Race and Race Differences,' which denied human racial differences and altered peoples' attitudes about race, was largely the invention of infamous Jewish anthropologist Ashley Montagu. That statement seemed to further highlight the ongoing Jewish agenda on race. Another example of that agenda: as far back as 1935, Franz Boas -- the Jewish godfather of race-denial who inspired Montagu's efforts -- approached two top scientists and asked them to create an anti-racism/race-denial statement, which would be signed by many other scientists and then publicized. Both of the scientists that Boas approached, anthropologist and psychologist Livingston Farrand and biologist Raymond Pearl, turned Boas down. Not one to give up easily, Boas then approached yet another race expert, anthropologist Earnest Hooton. Hooton agreed to create such a race statement (he sent it to seven top scientists but only one signed it).
Amazingly, the UNESCO race statement claimed that Jews are not a race or ethnic group, even though Jews contract 'Jewish diseases,' such as Tay-Sachs disease.
Other top experts who created race-denying/race-downplaying material for the UN or UNESCO were also Jewish, including Melville Herskovits, Otto Klineberg and Harry Shapiro. In fact, Jews pioneered the false-but-ubiquitous 'official' theory that racial differences between Whites and non-Whites do not really exist. The teachings of the Jews mentioned above were used to drastically alter Western culture, e.g. in arguing for the enactment of civil-rights legislation.
Despite the usual UN stance on Israel/Palestine, the UN has been good for Jews, i.e. the UN's social leveling programs and equality-for-all ideology have drastically lessened 'anti-Semitism' worldwide.
The Control of Eastern Europe After WWII
Not only was Russia controlled by Jews for many years, but countries in post-war Eastern Europe were as well. For example, communist Poland was run by Jewish figures including Jacob Berman, Boleslaw Bierut and Colonel Jozef Rozanski. Communist Romania was run by people such as Ana Pauker, Avram Bunaciu and Valter Roman. Hungary's communist government was also heavily Jewish, for example Mathias Rakosi, Ernest Gero and Michael Farkas. Under the leadership of those Jews, hundreds of thousands of people -- most of them gentiles -- were murdered, tortured or imprisoned throughout Eastern Europe.
The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) Investigations
In 1947 the U.S. Congress, via the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), began investigating the Hollywood film industry due to charges that Hollywood had been infiltrated by communism (it had been). A large number of actors, directors and screenwriters were members of the Communist Party and as such were getting marching orders from the Soviet Union. During that period, a group of people known as the Hollywood Ten refused to answer questions before the HUAC committee. They were then charged with contempt of Congress. A disproportionate number of the Hollywood Ten were Jews, including Herbert Biberman, Samuel Ornitz, Ring Lardner, Jr. and Albert Maltz, as were the people who were 'blacklisted' during that era. (A blacklisting meant that a person could not work in Hollywood due to his political activities.)
Of important note concerning HUAC was how that committee -- and the similar McCarthy committee later on -- was portrayed by the media and Hollywood. HUAC's mission - identifying people who were attempting to communize America on behalf of the Soviet Union -- was described as an un-American 'witch hunt.' Declassified U.S. and Soviet government reports, such as the Venona Intercepts, show that those 'witch hunters' were correct: communists had infiltrated many areas of American society.
Significantly, the majority of American communist leaders have been Jews, including Herbert Aptheker, Victor Perlo, Jay Lovestone and Benjamin Gitlow.
The Founding of Israel
Immense and concerted pressure was placed upon U.S. President Harry Truman so that he would endorse the idea of creating a Jewish state in Palestine. Naturally, most of that pressure came from Jews. Indeed, at one point Jewish Congressman Emanuel Celler led a group of Jews to the White House. There, during a conversation with Truman, Celler pounded on the president's desk and said that if Truman did not give his blessing for a Jewish nation, "we'll run you out of town." In fact, Truman said that "extreme Zionists" had threatened him. Also of note is the fact that Truman's Jewish friend Eddie Jacobson contacted Truman to urge him to support a Jewish state. But before Jacobson contacted Truman, Jacobson was briefed on Palestinian matters by Dewey Stone, a Zionist leader (which might make one wonder how Jacobson came to contact Truman and on whose behalf he might have been acting).
The creation of the state of Israel was extremely important to the Jews. Most of all, it gave them legitimacy. They were no longer seen as a small tribe of 'troublemakers' who moved from country to country getting evicted nearly every time. Now they were a people with their own country and the trappings that go with it: ambassadors, a large army and nuclear weapons. The Jews had finally arrived on the world stage.
It should be understood that Israel was literally founded on terrorism: Jewish revolutionaries, such as Menachem Begin, shot and blew-up British soldiers, foreign diplomats and scores of Arabs in a violent effort to reclaim 'their' land. (Ironically, Israel now condemns and fights terrorism).
Today, the Zionist lobby in Washington, D.C. wields enormous power over Congress. As a result, Congressmen dare not criticize Israel in public; those who do are usually not re-elected. Another result of Zionist power in Washington is the ever-increasing funding of the state of Israel by U.S. taxpayers.
Of further relevance is the question of Israel's legitimacy as a state. If the Jews were allowed to 'return' to land which they claim their ancestors occupied 2,000 years ago in Palestine, do the Indians in America also have the right to reclaim lands their ancestors occupied 200 years ago?
Arabs and Muslims throughout the world hate America and most other White countries because they see those countries as partners and protectors of Israel, which they are - especially America. (In fact, without the massive aid that the U.S. provides each year, Israel would become a third-world country with a military only a fraction of its current size. To put it another way, Israel needs America in order to survive as a viable state).
The Cold War
The 'cold' war between America and the Soviet Union, which began just after WWII and which was centered around both countries' nuclear arsenals, became more sophisticated and more expensive as America entered the 1950s. Billions of U.S. tax dollars were spent on atomic weapons and various security features both inside and outside of the U.S.
Of importance is the fact that the Cold War would never have occurred in the first place if Jews hadn't created the Soviet Union. Ironically, Jews a) were prime figures in creating America's first atomic weapons program, called 'The Manhattan Project'; and b) were also key players in networks which secretly provided U.S. atomic weapons technology to the Soviet Union, e.g. the Rosenbergs, Harry Gold and Robert Soblen. (For more information on the transfer of atomic secrets to the Soviet Union, see the Fuchs-Gold or the Rosenberg spy ring cases in American historical documents).
The Increased Use of the Word "Democracy" in America
As the Jewish foothold in the American publishing world became more solid, there appeared an increased use of the term "democracy" within books, newspapers and magazines to describe America.
The U.S. constitution contains no mention of "democracy," nor did America's founders use that word. America was created instead as a White republic in which only White males could vote or hold public office, and the Jews are very aware of that fact.
The U.S. Civil-Rights Movement
The history of the 1950s-1960s civil-rights movement might go unnoticed by many White citizens if it were not for the fact that that movement was created and steered by Jews, not by Blacks. Indeed, the NAACP was founded by and run for many years by Jews, such as the Spingarn brothers. Other important Jews in the NAACP included Henry Moskowitz, Lillian Wald, Jack Greenberg and Kivie Kaplan.
The groundbreaking Brown v. Board of Education court ruling in 1954 resulted almost entirely from the work of Jewish lawyers and activists connected with the NAACP, for example Jack Greenberg. Indeed, the legal brief for Brown was signed almost exclusively by Jews. Jewish activist Esther Swirk Brown was also a prime player in the Brown case. In fact, Swirk Brown actually launched the Brown case herself.
It could be said that, within the U.S. Congress at least, Representative Celler (see elsewhere in this essay) launched the Black civil-rights movement in America via his House bill H.R.6127, which when signed into law became the first civil-rights law created since the 1800s: the Civil Rights Act of 1957.
Furthermore, the constitutionally questionable U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964 came from a Jew, i.e. Congressman Celler's House bill H.R. 7152. That act created, among other things, affirmative action. It ended the practice of business owners deciding for themselves whom to hire and fire. In fact, the destruction of White rights in America was caused largely by the Jew-created and Jew-led civil-rights movement.
(Of possible interest to the reader is that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 created the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), which is responsible for ensuring that private employers obey the racial mandates of Title VII of the Act. Perhaps not surprisingly, two Jews, Alfred and Ruth Blumrosen, were key players in the construction of the EEOC, and Alfred was also the commission's first compliance chief (and is also referred to as its conciliations chief). Mr. Blumrosen shaped the racial quota guidelines that the EEOC would follow for decades to come. In fact, Blumrosen could be considered to be the godfather of racial quotas in America - at least as far as federal enforcement of racial quotas in employment is concerned. Furthermore, Sonia Pressman, a Jewish EEOC attorney, was a prime figure in the movement to extend the EEOC's reach to include gender-discrimination-in-employment into its legal jurisdiction. Pressman worked with NOW, a feminist group containing many Jews, in an attempt to force the EEOC to become more involved with gender bias matters).
The civil-rights movement also transformed the attitudes of American Blacks: before the civil-rights movement Blacks were largely respectful of Whites. Today Blacks openly denigrate White culture and challenge White authority. They demand that 'whitey' now show them respect which they may or may not have earned.
The Vatican's 1965 'Nostra Aetate' Declaration
As Look magazine noted in January 1966, in an article titled "How The Jews Changed Catholic Thinking," a Jew named Jules Isaac approached the Vatican about a possible Catholic condemnation of 'anti-Semitism.' His action resulted in the famous, official Vatican ruling that the Jews were not responsible for Jesus Christ's death. The ruling was a very significant victory for all Jews worldwide. Of importance is that after the Vatican statement was issued, Jews did not then issue a similar declaration admitting to and condemning Judaism's historic and harsh anti-gentile attitudes - attitudes which pre-date Christianity.
U.S. Immigration Law Altered
Jews have also led the movement in the U.S. Congress to open America to non-European immigration. The best example of that is the 1965 Immigration Act, aka the Hart-Celler Act, which resulted in a revolutionary change in U.S. immigration rules. Congressman Celler was the point man for that law, even though he is listed second, after Hart, in the title 'Hart-Celler.' Indeed, President Johnson mentioned Celler twice at the signing of the bill, H.R. 2580, into law on Oct. 3, 1965, but did not mention Hart. Other Jews in Congress such as Jacob Javits and Herbert Lehman also spearheaded the movement to allow more non-Europeans into America. An influential Jew and immigration lawyer named Edward Dubroff regularly advised Congressman Celler about immigration issues.
Additionally, powerful Jewish organizations carried out intense, ongoing campaigns in order to pressure individual Congressmen to vote for the loosening of U.S. immigration laws. At nearly every step of the campaign to alter U.S. immigration rules, Jews were at the forefront.
The Attack on the USS Liberty/the Theft of Arab Land in Palestine
Two important events occurred in the Middle East in 1967: Israel attacked an American ship, the USS Liberty; and Israel started a war with the Arabs during which the Jewish state stole vast amounts of Arab land, most notably the large West Bank in Palestine.
Israel cleverly stated that the attack on the Liberty ship was an accident and a case of mistaken identity, even though the Liberty was sailing in international waters and flying an American flag.
And, despite both UN and global demands, Israel still has not returned most of the land which was stolen from the Arabs.
The Rise of American Leftism and Counterculture
Not surprisingly, the American political Left was built largely by Jews as well. For example, Frankfurt School icon Herbert Marcuse laid the foundation for the American 'hippie' counterculture via his popular book One-Dimensional Man (1964). Other famous Jews who led the 1960s hippie movement included Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin and Paul Krassner. Lesser Jews drove the counterculture movement from behind the scenes by publishing, writing for, or editing leftist newspapers and magazines. And anti-war/college activism groups were disproportionately filled with Jews, too, e.g. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), the top leaders of which were Jews, for example Todd Gitlin, Mike Spiegel, Al Haber, and Mike Klonsky.
Similarly, most of the leaders of the feminist movement have been Jews, for example Betty Friedan, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, Lucy Komisar and Gloria Steinem. Most of the leaders of the homosexual-rights movement have been Jews, such as Larry Kramer, Alan Klein and Arnie Kantrowitz. Gun control in the U.S. Congress has been dominated by Jews such as Charles Schumer, Diane Feinstein and Howard Metzenbaum. Indeed, Jews created two landmark anti-gun laws in the 1990s: the Brady law, which came from Howard Metzenbaum and Charles Schumer, and the assault-rifle ban, which came from Dianne Feinstein and Schumer. In fact, America's first significant anti-gun legislation, the Gun Control Act of 1968, came from Congressman Celler's House bill H.R. 17735. Probably the most disturbing anti-gun legislation in recent years - for gun owners and constitutional-rights advocates alike - came from Jewish Senator Frank Lautenberg, whose domestic confiscation provision became law in 1996. That law prevents someone convicted of a certain misdemeanor crime from owning a gun. In other words, a misdemeanor conviction abolishes a constitutional right that our gentile Founders gave us.
Even the famous 1969 Woodstock rock-and-roll concert was created by Jews: Michael Lang, Artie Kornfeld, Joel Rosenman and John Roberts. Furthermore, a Jewish man named Elliot Tiber persuaded yet another Jew, Max Yasgur, to allow the Woodstock concert to be held on Yasgur's farmland.
Jews guided almost every step of the American counterculture movement.
The Growth of Hollywood and the U.S. Media
Of tremendous importance to America's culture is that the Hollywood film community, and the American media as well, is dominated by Jews. In fact, Jews founded the major Hollywood movie studios, e.g. Carl Laemmle (Universal Pictures), William Fox (Fox Film Corp.), Louis B. Mayer (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer) and Adolph Zukor (Paramount Pictures).
Some of the more well-known Jews in modern Hollywood and the media include film directors Steven Spielberg and Woody Allen, the Disney Co.'s Michael Eisner, actors Dustin Hoffman and Kirk Douglas, comedians Milton Berle and Don Rickles and news journalists Mike Wallace, Barbara Walters and Ted Koppel (more information about Jews, Hollywood and the media can be found in the essay "Who Rules America?" by National Vanguard Books, available on the web or in their book catalogue).
Indeed, as the 1960s hippie revolution was occurring, another revolution of sorts was happening in Hollywood. Jewish network executives began to churn out movies and TV shows featuring Black actors in leading roles. Hollywood also produced a notorious movie that featured an interracial relationship, which was still taboo at the time. It is apparent that the Jews in Hollywood, believing that the pro-White attitudes of America's Founders would never return, became much bolder during the 1960s. (Regarding the Founders' attitudes about race, a law created in the Founders' era, 'Act of March 26, 1790 (1 Stat 103-104),' stated that only Whites could become American citizens. In fact, non-Whites had no significant rights in America until the XV Amendment was created in 1870).
As America entered the 1970s it became common for White Americans to see Blacks, Jews and even Asians in prominent vocations on TV shows and in movies. Those minorities were seen portraying judges, police detectives and attorneys on screens big and small all over the U.S.
Non-Hollywood media also flourished in America from the 1960s onward. The news departments at most broadcasting companies were run by, or heavily staffed by, Jews. Major U.S. newspapers also came under Jewish control as small newspapers were bought out by big media conglomerates which were dominated by Jews. Furthermore, as American culture was being socially 'Jewified,' so were the cultures of other Western countries being similarly Jewified via American movies and TV shows, which became popular in many countries. America served as a base of sorts for the exporting of Jew-created movies and TV shows which featured leftist and politically-correct messages, which served various Jewish social objectives.
The Rise of Big Capitalism
Capitalism may be 'all-American,' but the type of colossal capitalism that bankrupts family-owned retail stores is not. Big capitalism drives corner grocers out of business and outsources jobs to third-world countries. It encourages materialism. And it leads to the importing of inexpensive goods in massive quantities, which also causes American jobs to vanish.
Even though Jews are known for their leftist behavior, they nonetheless pioneered giant capitalism and corporatism. Jews especially pioneered conglomerates, in which one large company owns a dozen smaller companies.
The Creation of the OSI
In 1979, world Jewry scored an important victory when, through the actions of Jews - especially Jewish congresswoman Elizabeth Holtzman - the U.S. Justice Department created the Office of Special Investigations (OSI). That office finds, deports and/or prosecutes alleged former Nazis living in America who may have been stationed at German-operated concentration camps during World War II.
Since the Holocaust didn't occur in America, it isn't entirely clear to many Americans why their tax dollars are being used to fund this rather unique type of Jewish revenge.
The Rise of Neoconservatism
Beginning in the 1980s, the conservative or "right-wing" political movement in America was slowly overtaken by what is known as the "neoconservative" movement. The neoconservative ideology is not really conservative but is instead politically moderate, and is even liberal regarding certain issues like civil rights. The neoconservative movement was launched by formerly-liberal Jews and its current leaders are mostly Jews. The neoconservative movement's main focus is on how to use America to protect the interests of Israel.
Neoconservatism has resulted in America being alienated from many former allied countries in the world, e.g. France.
Neoconservatism has now almost completely replaced traditional conservatism in America, with genuine conservatives now consigned to the margins of politics and often referred to as "racists" or "bigots."
The Bombing of the U.S. Marine Barracks
In October 1983, 220 U.S. Marine Corp soldiers were killed in a suicide bombing of their barracks in Beirut, Lebanon. The Marines were stationed in Beirut due to Israel's actions - most especially because of Israel's role in the 1982 massacre of hundreds of Palestinians at the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps in Beirut.
Today, the barracks bombing is but a distant memory, and few people connect the event with Israel.
Holocaust Remembrance Emerges as a Growth and Guilt Industry
Since the 1970s, the Jewish memorializing of the Holocaust has become an industry of enormous and ever-increasing size. Scores of organizations and associations exist worldwide to remind gentiles every week that the Holocaust occurred. So powerful and industrialized is Holocaust-remembrance-mania that some American states require, by law, the teaching of Holocaust education in public schools. Law-enforcement training academies often mandate Holocaust studies as well.
Holocaust-remembrance-mania is a clever program which prevents most gentiles from criticizing Jews many decades after the Holocaust.
The Sept. 11, 2001 attack on America/the 2003 Iraq War
The terrorist attack(s) upon the United States on Sept. 11, 2001 transformed not only America but also the rest of the West. It caused all of the White Western countries to reexamine, and then rebuild, their security apparatuses, at significant financial expense. More than that, it changed how those countries viewed the Arab world, since the attack appeared to have been planned and carried out by Arab extremists.
As a result of the 2001 attack, the U.S. Congress passed a heavy-handed law called the "USA PATRIOT Act." That law canceled or curbed many of the rights that Americans had traditionally enjoyed - rights that the Founders had included into the Bill of Rights.
It is no longer a secret that the reason the United States was attacked by terrorists in Sept. 2001 was because of America's vigorous support of Israel. Put another way, Jews caused the Sept. 11, 2001 attack, albeit indirectly, for if it wasn't for powerful Zionist political influence in Washington, D.C., the United States would not have been so staunchly supportive of Israel. (In fact, America didn't vigorously support Israel until the 1973 Middle East war. Shortly after that war, a Jewish-American diplomat, Henry Kissinger, created a strong, lasting partnership between America and Israel by engineering a document called the "Memorandum of Understanding." That document created, for all practical purposes, the so-called "special" relationship that now exists between the two countries).
The 2001 terrorist attack upon the U.S. also led to America's involvement in the 2003-present Iraq War, since the former event was used in a vague, roundabout way as an excuse for American soldiers to invade and occupy Iraq.
Of significance regarding America's involvement in the Iraq War was a committee within America's Pentagon called the Office of Special Plans (OSP). The OSP was designed to funnel information about Iraq directly to the White House, thereby bypassing the usual filters that such information would normally travel through, i.e. other governmental intelligence agencies. According to news sources, shortly before the Iraq War, the OSP provided President George W. Bush with certain information about Iraqi weapons programs. That information was incorrect, but nonetheless it was later used by the White House as a reason for American soldiers to invade Iraq - an invasion carried out for Israel's benefit .
The OSP was staffed by a number of Jews, such as Harold Rhode, Douglas Feith and OSP director Abram Shulsky. Feith, and various other so-called "neoconservatives," had a history of suggesting an attack upon Saddam Hussein's Iraq dating back to the 1990s, e.g. they were involved in the creation of a 1996 policy paper that mentioned "removing Saddam Hussein from power" . That such a removal idea emerged years before the pre-war "discovery" of Saddam's "weapons of mass destruction" is significant. Furthermore, under OSP's watch, Israeli officials came and went at the Pentagon in the days prior to the Iraq War (apparently to aid American war efforts) while observing few of the standard security procedures intended for visitors . Also, the OSP itself was conceived by a Jew, Paul Wolfowitz, and further, it worked closely with an anti-Iraq committee located within the Israeli government, a committee which was similar to OSP in its anti-Iraq aims .
It should be noted that the major claims of OSP regarding Iraq - that Saddam had ties to the terrorist group Al Qaeda and that he possessed "weapons of mass destruction" - proved to be false.
It is probable that without the actions of Jews, the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attack upon America and the 2003 Iraq War would not have occurred, nor would America be such a vigorous supporter of Israel. In fact, it is easy to conclude that America would have no significant "Arab problem" if not for Jews.
The Creation of the U.S. Anti-Semitism-Monitoring Office
In 2004, an office was created within the U.S. State Department to "monitor" anti-Semitism worldwide, despite the fact that 1) that department insisted that it did not want such an office to be created; and 2) America is not a Jewish country.
The legislation which created the anti-Semitism-monitoring office, called the Global Anti-Semitism Awareness Act, came from Jewish congressman Tom Lantos as bill H.R. 4230.
It was a big victory for the Jews. That office gave world Jewry a powerful, 'official' weapon with which to combat people who oppose Jewish supremacism and/or Zionism. (One might wonder how it's the business of the U.S. government if, for example, anti-Semitic acts are committed in Thailand. One might also wonder why there are no U.S. government offices designed to monitor anti-White, anti-Black or anti-Christian behavior worldwide).
Like the previously-mentioned OSI and the neoconservative movement, we again see the Jews using the U.S. government as a tool with which to further their racial agenda.
The information above shows that the impact that Jews have had upon the world -- and especially upon the West -- during the past 200 years is remarkable. Important questions arise from the impact of the Jews: without their actions, would WWII have occurred? Would America have had a 50-year Cold War with the Soviet Union? Would the Soviet Union even have existed in the first place? Would the Vietnam War have occurred? Would America be as politically liberal as it is today? Would America have been involved in wars in the Middle East? Those are questions for Westerners to ponder at length.
Even more remarkable is how the Western public never hears about the influence of the Jews upon their cultures. Words such as 'leftist' or 'socialist' are used to describe Jewish social activists in the West but never the word 'Jew.' We suggest that that lack of mention of the Jews in Western societies is itself mute testimony to their tremendous power. By using a) frequent mentions of the Holocaust; b) the media; c) Hollywood; d) large amounts of money; and e) significant political influence, Jews have rebuilt the West to their ends. Gentiles who complain about that Jewish rebuilding -- and their own dispossession as a result of it -- are labeled 'anti-Semitic' and marginalized into ineffectiveness. Such Jewish behavior as outlined above is, again, not a plot by Jews but is instead inborn, proactive behavior by them, which supposedly helps to offset the chance that Jews will be oppressed yet again, or, will be again expelled from Western countries (Jews have been expelled from most Western countries at one time or another).
Also curious, and telling, is the fact that even though the religion of Judaism is based upon bigotry, that fact is rarely mentioned by modern Christians. Their silence about Judaism's hatred is both widespread and quite noticeable, as if Christians are constantly checking themselves to ensure that they aren't uttering "anti-Semitic" words or phrases. In other words, the power of the Jews is so great that it actually produces self-censorship within the world's Christian communities.
Finally, it is interesting to note how quickly Jews accomplished the rebuilding of America, the Western powerbase of the Jews: in roughly 50 years. Before President Roosevelt took office in 1933 Jews had little influence upon American culture on the whole. But by 1983 Jews dominated American culture via television, movies, newspapers, magazines and other cultural organs. That a people constituting just 2.5% of the U.S. population could significantly alter the culture of the most powerful country in the world in such a short time is very significant. Also significant is that there is not a single educational institution anywhere in the United States in which you will see the facts about Jews and their interests assembled and presented in logical connection as we have here.
 Jews are both a hybrid race/ethnic group and a religion; they are highly intelligent and are, historically speaking, inbred; such inbreeding causes grouplike thinking as a rule. Jews contract more diseases unique to Jews than any other ethnic group, suggesting that they are the most inbred of humans. Interesting in light of their proclivity for mocking the supposed inbreeding of rural White populations.
 The millionaire Henry Strakosch, referred to as both a Jew and a gentile depending upon the source, also aided Churchill financially.
 Re: Swirk Brown: see the news article "50 Years After Integration Case, Jews Remember Their Crucial Role," by Matthew E. Berger, JTA News, May 10, 2004, online.
 re: Blumrosen and his impact upon EEOC regulations, see the article "Color Code" by P. C. Roberts and Lawrence Stratton, Jr., in National Review magazine, March 20, 1995. See also the article "Who's to Blame for the Affirmative Action Fiasco?" by Hugh Murray, online at http://www.barnesreview.org, Nov./Dec. 2001.
 the 2003 Iraq War suggested as having been carried out for Israel's benefit: public comments by two U.S. Congressmen in 2003/2004: Congressman Jim Moran (see news article "Moran Said Jews Are Pushing War," by Spencer S. Hsu, the Washington Post, March 11, 2003) and Senator Ernest Hollings (in his essay "Why We?re in Iraq," May, 2004). Further, a retired U.S. Marine Corps general suggested, in a May 2004 interview with the CBS News television program "60 Minutes," that the Iraq War was advocated within the U.S. government for the benefit of Israel and that the aim of the "neoconservative" war advocates was "the worst-kept secret in Washington"; see also the news article "U.S.: After Iraq, we'll deal with other radical Mideast regimes," by Aluf Benn, Haaretz news, Israel, April 5, 2003. Also see U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell's comments in the news article "Powell Sees Mideast Reshaped After Iraq War" by Jonathan Wright, Reuters, Feb. 6, 2003, which features Powell as saying, just weeks before the Iraq War, that Saddam Hussein was "a threat to the region" i.e. the Middle East. America is obviously not located anywhere near the Middle East
   news article "The Spies Who Pushed for War," by Julian Borger, the Guardian, UK, July 17, 2003, online, and the essay "Selective Intelligence" by Seymour Hersh, The New Yorker, May 2003. Also see the essay "Tenet: Wolfowitz Did It/The Yellowcake Blame Game" by Jason Leopold, online at Counterpunch.org, July 19, 2003